The Advent of IO

What if we wanted to write a Haskell program to behave something like this:

$ runhaskell hello.hs
Hello who?

$ runhaskell hello.hs Pat
Hello Pat

$ runhaskell hello.hs -u Pat
Hello PAT

One implementation may look like this:

main :: IO ()
main = do
    args <- getArgs

    let name = case args of
                ("-u":n:_) -> map toUpper n
                (     n:_) -> n
                otherwise  -> "who?"

    putStrLn $ "Hello " ++ name

And almost immediately, the budding Haskell programmer is met with a number of confusing concepts: What the heck is IO ()? What does <- mean? When questions like these are raised, the answer is “well, because Monad.” Not very enlightening.

Haskell’s IO monad is an amazingly elegant solution to a very thorny problem, but why is it so hard to wrap one’s head around? I think the reason it can be so confusing is that we come at it backwards, we see this elegant result but know not the problem it solves.

In the Beginning

In the very early days of Haskell, there was no IO monad. Instead, programs used a somewhat confusing [Response] -> [Request] model (some details can be found here).

It was clear that if Haskell were to become generally useful, there had to be something better, something that allowed more intuitive interactions with the outside word. The problem was extending this idea of a globally accessible Outside World without sacrificing the purity of the program.

Recently, while pondering the State monad, I had an epiphany which confirms how the problem was solved: Every function is still pure.

How is this possible? Well, first we have to look at IO actions as any other form of stateful computation. Then we just have to prove to ourselves that stateful computations can be done in a pure way.

Take a program like this:

main :: IO ()
main = doTheThing

doTheThing :: IO ()
doTheThing = do
    putStrLn "one"
    putStrLn "two"

It’s common to refer to these functions as impure and having side effects. We look at an imperative line like putStrLn and assume that the function is “reaching out” affecting the outside world by printing text to some terminal it has not received as a direct input, and is therefore impure.

This mis-characterization isn’t itself bad, we do need a way to differentiate Haskell functions which “live in IO” vs those that don’t. Pure vs impure seems like good enough categories, but it’s not entirely correct and can lead folks astray when more complex concepts are introduced.

Imagine if we instead wrote the program like this:

main :: World -> (World, ())
main world = doTheThing world

putStrLn :: String -> World -> (World, ())
putStrLn str world = appendText (str ++ "\n") (terminal world)

doTheThing :: World -> (World, ())
doTheThing world =
    let (world1, _) = (putStrLn "one") world
        (world2, _) = (putStrLn "two") world1

    in (world2, ())

I’ve purposely left appendText undefined and not told you what World is, but you can still confirm that these functions act only on their direct inputs, thus remaining completely pure. If we accept that there is some notion of a World to which we can appendText provided by the Haskell language, then the above is a completely accurate de-sugaring of the original program.

To further explore this idea, I went through the mental exercise of building the IO monad myself by substituting my own World into the confines of a very simple alternate main syntax.

I hope you’ll find it as illustrative as I did.

Limiting Main.main

Let’s pretend that Haskell is in its infancy and the designers have punted the idea of IO. They’ve chosen instead to flesh out the rest of the language with vastly simpler semantics for a program’s main.

In this hypothetical language, a program’s main function is of the type [String] -> String. When executed, the Haskell runtime will provide the program’s commandline arguments to your main function as a list of Strings. Whatever String your main function returns will then be printed on stdout.

Let’s try out this language on our sample problem:

import Data.Char (toUpper)

main1 :: [String] -> String
main1 args = sayHello1 args

sayHello1 :: [String] -> String
sayHello1 args = "Hello " ++ (nameFromArgs1 args)

nameFromArgs1 :: [String] -> String
nameFromArgs1 ("-u":name:_) = map toUpper name
nameFromArgs1 (     name:_) = name
nameFromArgs1            _  = "who?"

Obviously things could be done simpler, but I’ve purposely written it using two functions: one which requires access to program input and one which affects program output. This will make our exercise much more interesting as we move toward monadic IO.

Our current method of passing everything that’s needed as direct arguments and getting back anything that’s needed as direct results works well for simple cases, but it doesn’t scale. When we consider that the input to and output of main might eventually be a rich object representing the entire outside world (file handles, TCP sockets, environment variables, etc), it becomes clear that passing these resources down into and back out of any functions we wish to use is simply not workable.

However, passing the data directly in and getting the result directly out is the only way to keep functions pure. It’s also the only way to keep them honest. If any one function needs access to some piece of the outside world, any functions which use it also need that same access. This required access propagates all the way up to main which is the only place that data is available a-priori.

What if there were a way to continue to do this but simply make it easier on the eyes (and fingers) through syntax or abstraction?

Worldly Actions

The solution to our problem begins by defining two new types: World and Action.

A World is just something that represents the commandline arguments given to main and the String which must be returned by main for our program to have any output. At this point in time, there’s no other aspects of the world that we have access to or could hope to affect.

data World = World
    { input  :: [String]
    , output :: String

An Action is a function which takes one World and returns a different one along with some result. The differences between the given World and the returned one are known as the function’s side-effects. Often, we don’t care about the result itself and only want the side-effects, in these cases we’ll use Haskell’s () (known as Unit) as the result.

sayHello2 :: World -> (World, ())
sayHello2 w =
    let (w', n) = nameFromArgs2 w

    in (w' { output = output w ++ "Hello " ++ n }, ())

nameFromArgs2 :: World -> (World, String)
nameFromArgs2 w =
    case input w of
        ("-u":name:_) -> (w, map toUpper name)
        (     name:_) -> (w, name)
        otherwise     -> (w, "who?")

Now we can rewrite main to just convert its input and output into a World which gets passed through our world-changing functions.

main2 :: [String] -> String
main2 args =
    let firstWorld    = World args ""
        (newWorld, _) = sayHello2 firstWorld

    in output newWorld

In the above, we’ve just accepted that World -> (World, a) is this thing we call an Action. There’s no reason to be implicit about these things in Haskell, so let’s give it a name.

newtype Action w a = Action { runAction :: (w -> (w, a)) }

In order to create a value of this type, we simply need to give a world-changing function to its constructor. The runAction accessor allows us to pull the actual world-changing function back out again. Once we have the function itself, we can execute it on any value of type w and we’ll get a new value of type w along with a result of type a.

As mentioned, we often don’t care about the result and want to run an Action only for its side-effects. This next function makes running an action and discarding its result easy:

execAction :: Action w a -> w -> w
execAction a w = let (w', _) = (runAction a) w in w'

This becomes immediately useful in our newest main:

main3 :: [String] -> String
main3 args = output $ execAction (Action sayHello2) (World args "")

You’ll notice we need to pass sayHello2 to the Action constructor before giving it to execAction. This is because sayHello2 is just the world-changing function itself. For reasons that should become clear soon, we don’t want to do this, it would be better for our world-changing functions to be actual Actions themselves.

Before we address that, let’s define a few helper Actions:

-- | Access a world's input without changing it
getArgs :: Action World [String]
getArgs = Action (\w -> (w, input w))

-- | Change a world by appending str to its output buffer
putStrLn :: String -> (Action World ())
putStrLn str = Action (\w ->
    (w { output = (output w) ++ str ++ "\n"}, ()))

Now let’s fix our program:

sayHello3 :: Action World ()
sayHello3 = Action (\w ->
    let (w', n) = (runAction nameFromArgs3) w

    in (runAction (putStrLn $ "Hello " ++ n)) w')

nameFromArgs3 :: Action World String
nameFromArgs3 = Action (\w ->
    let (w', args) = (runAction getArgs) w

    in case args of
        ("-u":name:_) -> (w', map toUpper name)
        (     name:_) -> (w', name)
        otherwise     -> (w', "who?"))

This allows us to use sayHello3 directly in main:

main4 :: [String] -> String
main4 args = output $ execAction sayHello3 (World args "")

Things are still pretty clunky, but one thing to notice is that now all of the world-changing things are of the same type, specifically Action World a. Getting things to all be the same type has exposed the underlying duplication involved with sequencing lists of actions over some world.

A Monad is Born

One obvious duplication is taking two Actions and combining them into one Action which represents passing a World through them, one after another.

combine :: Action w a -> Action w b -> Action w b
combine f g = Action (\w ->
    -- call the first action on the world given to produce a new world,
    let (w',  _) = (runAction f) w

        -- then call the second action on that new world
        (w'', b) = (runAction g) w'

    -- to produce the final world and result
    in (w'', b))

f = combine (putStrLn "one") (putStrLn "two")

execAction f $ World [] ""
-- => World [] "one\ntwo\n"

What about functions like putStrLn which aren’t themselves an Action until they’ve been given their first argument? How can we combine those with other Actions?

pipe :: Action w a -> (a -> Action w b) -> Action w b
pipe f g = Action (\w ->
    -- call the first action on the world given to produce a new world 
    -- and a result of type a,
    let (w',  a) = (runAction f) w

        -- then give the result of type a to the second function which 
        -- turns it into an action which can be called on the new world
        (w'', b) = (runAction (g a)) w'

    -- to produce the final world and result
    in (w'', b))

f = pipe getArgs (putStrLn . head)

execAction f $ World ["Pat"] ""
-- => World ["Pat"] "Pat\n"

pipe and combine both require their first argument be an Action, but what if all we have is a non-Action value?

-- turn the value into an Action by returning it as the result along 
-- with the world given
promote :: a -> Action w a
promote x = Action (\w -> (w, x))

f = pipe (promote "Hello world") putStrLn

execAction f $ World [] ""
-- => World [] "Hello world\n"

Finally, we can remove that duplication and make our code much more readable:

sayHello4 :: Action World ()
sayHello4 = pipe nameFromArgs4 (\n -> putStrLn $ "Hello " ++ n)

nameFromArgs4 :: Action World String
nameFromArgs4 =
    pipe getArgs (\args ->
        promote $ case args of
                    ("-u":name:_) -> map toUpper name
                    (     name:_) -> name
                    otherwise     -> "who?")

Turns out, the behaviors we’ve just defined have a name: Monad. And once you’ve made your type a Monad (by defining these three functions), any and all functions which have been written to deal with Monads (which is a lot) will now be able to work with your type.

To show that there are no tricks here, I’ll even use the functions we’ve defined as the implementation in our real Monad instance:

instance Monad (Action w) where
    return = promote
    (>>=)  = pipe

-- As our first free lunch, Haskell already provides "combine" in terms 
-- of >>=. A combination is just a pipe but with the result of the first 
-- action discarded.
(>>) f g = f >>= \_ -> g

Now our functions are looking like real Haskell syntax:

sayHello5 :: Action World ()
sayHello5 = nameFromArgs5 >>= (\n -> putStrLn $ "Hello " ++ n)

nameFromArgs5 :: Action World String
nameFromArgs5 =
    getArgs >>= \args ->
        return $ case args of
                    ("-u":name:_) -> map toUpper name
                    (     name:_) -> name
                    otherwise     -> "who?"

Do It to It

Now that we’ve made our type a real Monad, and now that we understand what functions like return and (>>=) mean, we can make the final leap to the more imperative looking code we started with.

Haskell has something called “do-notation”. All it is is a form of pre-processing which transforms expressions like this:

f = do
  args <- getArgs

  putStrLn $ head args

Into expressions like this:

f = getArgs >>= (\args -> putStrLn $ head args)

Either syntax is valid Haskell, and I use both freely depending on the scenario. Let’s go ahead and rewrite our functions in do-notation:

sayHello6 :: Action World ()
sayHello6 = do
    name <- nameFromArgs5

    putStrLn $ "Hello " ++ name

nameFromArgs6 :: Action World String
nameFromArgs6 = do
    args <- getArgs

    return $ case args of
                ("-u":name:_) -> map toUpper name
                (     name:_) -> name
                otherwise     -> "who?"

It’s hard to believe that, to this point, we have no such thing as IO. These functions simply describe how to make one World from another, and that only actually happens when main puts sayHello together with some initial World via execAction.

What we’ve done is built the system we want for IO all the way up to main. We’ve given any function in our system “direct” access to program input and output, all that’s required is they make themselves Actions. Through the use of the Monad typeclass and do-notation, making functions Actions has become quite pleasant while keeping everything entirely pure.

Final Touches

Let’s say that instead of being a primitive [String] -> String, we’ll let main be itself an Action World (). Then we can let the Haskell runtime handle constructing a World, calling execAction main on it, then outputting whatever output there is in the new World we get back.

Then, let’s imagine we didn’t have our simplistic World type which only deals with commandline arguments and an output string. Imagine we had a rich World that knew about environment variables, file handles, and memory locations. That type would live in an impure space with access to all the richness of reality, but we could use pure Actions to describe how to read its files or access its volatile memory.

Things might end up like this:

type IO a = Action World a

main :: IO ()
main = do
    args <- getArgs

    let name = case args of
                ("-u":n:_) -> map toUpper n
                (     n:_) -> n
                otherwise  -> "who?"

    putStrLn $ "Hello " ++ name
$ runhaskell hello.hs -u io
Hello IO

28 Jul 2013, tagged with haskell